TEACHING FOR TEACHERS
Manual for teaching - from teachers for teahcers
Teachers from all over Europe joined eTwinning project named Teaching for teachers where they wrote about teaching activities and methods they use in their classroom.
Here is the list of authors:
Ines Sedlar, Croatia - founder of the project
Mustafa Kemal PİŞKİNER, Turkey
Serhat Çeven, Turkey
Sandra Kavaliauskienė, Lithuania
BEGÜM ÖZENER, Turkey
Edina Smoljo, Croatia
HİLAL BAKIR, Turkey
Ewa Kozysa-Pasierbek, Poland
Danijela Gašpar, Croatia
Yasemin Uysal, Turkey
Alenka Miljević, Croatia
THE 5E LEARNING CYCLE
Mustafa Kemal PİŞKİNER, Turkey
The 5 E’s is an instructional model based on the constructivist approach to learning, which says that learners build or construct new ideas on top of their old ideas. The 5 E’s can be used with students of all ages, including adults.
Each of the 5 E’s describes a phase of learning, and each phase begins with the letter “E”: Engage, Explore, Explain, Elaborate, and Evaluate. The 5 E’s allows students and teachers to experience common activities, to use and build on prior knowledge and experience, to construct meaning, and to continually assess their understanding of a concept.
Engage: This phase of the 5 E’s starts the process. An “engage” activity should do the following:
1. Make connections between past and present learning experiences
2. Anticipate activities and focus students’ thinking on the learning outcomes of current activities. Students should become mentally engaged in the concept, process, or skill to be learned.
Explore: This phase of the 5 E’s provides students with a common base of experiences. They identify and develop concepts, processes, and skills. During this phase, students actively explore their environment or manipulate materials.
Explain: This phase of the 5 E’s helps students explain the concepts they have been exploring. They have opportunities to verbalize their conceptual understanding or to demonstrate new skills or behaviors. This phase also provides opportunities for teachers to introduce formal terms, definitions, and explanations for concepts, processes, skills, or behaviors.
Elaborate: This phase of the 5 E’s extends students’ conceptual understanding and allows them to practice skills and behaviors. Through new experiences, the learners develop deeper and broader understanding of major concepts, obtain more information about areas of interest, and refine their skills.
Evaluate: This phase of the 5 E’s encourages learners to assess their understanding and abilities and lets teachers evaluate students’ understanding of key concepts and skill development.
TASK: WRİTE A STORY
DURATION: 80 Minutes
Various pictures are shown to the students at the beginning of the course. Students are asked to talk about photographs by asking questions about who they are, where they live, when they have lived, and how their life styles are going to be.
Students are asked which applications are installed on their mobile phones. Incoming answers stop on the Instagram. In Instagram talk about what features of the application are in question. Ask InstaStory if they have not tried it. After the answers they are asked to add text to the pictures they take using this feature and then make them into gifs with GifCreator application.
Story type and features are described on the mind map.
It is emphasized that all prose writings have introduction, development and conclusion sections. Also it is emphasized that the event in the texts is also called as the setting-plot, the conflict-climax and the resolution. You will be asked what are the essentials in the stories. Person, event, place and time must be clearly specified again. Storybird application is introduced. In practice, a class is created so that students can easily examine their work.
An amusing ActionBound in which the general culture of the student is also measured application is used.
Serhat Çeven, Turkey
ACTIVITY: AN ADVENTURE!
MATERIALS: PENS, SHEETS, 4 CD, 4 COMPUTERS and SOME OTHER MATERIALS FOR LESSON TOPICS
TIME: 2 HOURS
AIMS: This activity in which kids can be explorers!
GROUPS: 5 CHILDIREN IN A GROUP AND 5 GROUPS FOR AN ACTIVITY
I’m Science teacher and I want my students to be explorers! I designed my topics like an Advanture. We created some quesitons, hints, videos and a key for a box. We hid those materials somewhere in school and garden and gave them first hint for first point of activity. They followed step by step actvity. Final action is on the CD on last point of activity where they made a model.
Topic: Air friction
First Hint: I’m a bee. I need help, please find me!
(They go to garden for finding bee model somewhere in the garden. We can make other groups to look for butterfly, mosquito or any other model.)
Bee have a quesiton: My wings are broken and I need a rocket to go to my home-comb. I know that you need some help. I guess you can get some information in your Science teacher‘s cabinet.
(Students go to my cabinet but it is locked by a code. They have to solve the code. I put there 3 papers signed A, B, C.
They test those three systems and decide: “How do you sort those materials on how long they stay in the air?”
Answer of that question give them code of my cabinet and there is a CD about “How can you build a Rocket”
They go to next point.
They go to computer and put cd in. There is an video about how they can build a rocket. They watch the video and go to the building area where they build a rocket and we test it.
You can make as many hints and points as you like. Topics can be very different.
Sandra Kavaliauskienė, Lithuania
I have created a calendar. As you can see it teaches the names of the day, month, ordinal numbers, describes the weather. I also play with my students and let them change words by giving a task what date to arrange in the calendar.
CHANGE THE STORY
Serhat Çeven, Turkey
We can use famous stories to teach students some things. I chose tree stories which students like.
The rule of this activity is: you must change some words of story with given words about our lessons. But don’t forget, the words you changed must be appropriate with its meaning.
Harry is a mystic hero. He studies at the Hogwarts Magic School. He is a wizard and he uses his wand to make magic. …………………………………………
He only visits children who believe in magic
Words: Tooth, Mouth, tooth brush, tooth paste, brushing teeth 3 times a day
After change: Harry is a tooth magician, he uses his tooth brush to make clean teeth and save them. Of course when he works on a kid mouth he needs to use tooth paste too. He only visits children who are brushing teeth 3 times a day.
BEGÜM ÖZENER, Turkey
Comparatives are used to show the difference between two objects. Superlatives are used to show difference between more than two objects and by using superlatives they will learn the differences between certain objects. In addition, the topic is about planets by learning about planets, the students will not only learn new vocabulary but also they will learn how to make comparisons about planets and comprehend the differences between them. In this class, the students will learn both a new grammar subject and new vocabulary items about planets. By combining the vocabulary and grammar, they will become knowledge both in vocabulary and grammar.
1. To identify the names of certain planets.
2. To learn the vocabulary related to the topic which is called planets.
3. To use the comparatives and superlatives in meaning contexts.
1. The students will be able to identify comparatives and superlatives.
2. The students will be able to answer the listening questions accurately.
3. The students will be able to identify the names of planets.
4. The students will be able to find the vocabulary items in the word puzzle and tell their meanings.
MATERIALS: word puzzle, smartboard, posters, achievement certificate, worksheet, powerpoint presentation
DURATION: 40 minutes
INTRODUCTION: Teacher will hang up posters about the planets before the lesson. He/She will also give them a glossary in order to make students get all the vocabulary items mentioned in the lesson. Teacher greets students and asks how they feel today in order to prepare them for lesson. Then teacher starts showing some objects from daily life in order to concretize the subject (comparatives and superlatives) in students minds. For instance; Teacher will show a bottle of milk and a can of coke and teacher will say ‘Milk is healthier than coke, milk is better than coke’ ‘ An apple is bigger than a plum’.
MAIN ACTIVITY: Teacher shows the PowerPoint presentation about the comparatives and superlatives and teacher starts explaining the subject by giving examples, showing illustrations from the PowerPoint presentation. After showing the PowerPoint presentation teacher distributes a worksheet about comparatives and superlatives to the class. Teacher wants students to do the exercise on their own.
Teacher distributes a second worksheet composed of multiple choice questions. Teacher gives students time to do the questions one by one. Teacher tries to pick different students for each question in order to ensure equality. While students are giving the answer, teacher asks students whether there is an unclear part or not. If there is, teacher will explain the unclear parts again in order to be sure that every student has understood.
Teacher distributes a second worksheet composed of multiple choice questions. Teacher gives students time to do the questions on their own as in the first exercise. Then, students raise their hands and they start giving the answers. If students give wrong answers, teacher will correct them immediately by explaining why.
Teacher plays a video about planets (https://youtube/ymutllVO74OQ) which also includes examples sentences about comparatives and superlatives. In addition after watching the video, teacher distribute them a worksheet about planets on their own and when everybody is done, they will start giving the answer one by one. Teacher writes and when everybody is done, they will start giving the answer one by one. Teacher writes the correct answers on the board and if there is a mistake, it will be corrected instantly.
FINAL ACTIVITY: Teacher will hang a word puzzle on the board as the last activity and by raising hands students will come to the board and find the words one by one. Teacher will also ask them about the meanings of the vocabulary items they have found in the puzzle and she will write the meanings of new vocabulary items on the board.
Teacher will give a worksheet. In the worksheet there are pictures of three people and their features. The students are expected to write at least 5 sentences about them by using comparatives and superlatives in pairs. Then teacher will collect and check them and give them back to the students next lesson.
At the end of the lesson, teacher will distribute each student an achievement certificate and a little reward in order to motivate them for the next cross.
ASSESSMENT: Teacher will collect the worksheet she has given to the students.
She will check and assess them in terms of their accuracy.
DAS WABENSPIELE - THE NET GAME
Edina Smoljo, Croatia
Here is an explanation in English and in German:
„The Netgame“ is a competition game and serves to repeat the key words learned during one week or one lesson.
The class is divided into two groups: one group, for example, is „the red one“ and the other „the blue one“.
Preparation: the teacher writes words that students need to guess and questions on one sheet of the paper. On the „net“ (in the attachment) the teacher writes the first letter of the wanted word.
The teacher puts the „net“ on the board, and the game begins. The first group chooses for one field, for example: *The first group chooses the field with the letter F.
*The question is: „Your mother, father, brother and sister are your…?“
*The answer is „Family“.
*If the group answers the question correctly, the teacher colours that field in the colour of the group (i.e. red).
*The other group chooses the field with the letter G.
*The question is „Who is the mother of your father?“
*The answer is „Grandmother“.
* If the group answers the question correctly, the teacher colors that field in the color of the group (i.e. blue).
The aim of the game is to win the 4 connected fields of the same color – horizontally or vertically. They just need to be connected.
The game is suitable for children of different ages.
Das Wabenspiel: hat Wettbewerbskarakter und eignet sich hervorragend dazu, mit viel Spaβ wichtige Wörter aus einer Woche oder einer thematischen Einheit zu wiederholen.
Man teilt die Klasse in zwei Gruppen, eine Gruppe ist z.B. rot und die andere blau. Man braucht natürlich auch diese zwei Farbstifte. Der Lehrer hängt das Wabenspiel an die Tafel, aber vorher muss er die Fragen zum Spiel auf ein anderes Blatt vorbereiten und die Anfangsbuchstaben der Wörter , die erraten werden sollen ins Raster reinschreiben. Der Lehrer sagt welche Gruppe anfangen darf und diese Gruppe wählt ein Feld aus.
Zum Beispiel: Der Anfangsbuchstabe ist „F“ und die Frage des Lehrers: „Der Vater, die Mutter und die Geschwister sind eine???“ Wer zuerst „Familie“ sagt hat dieses Feld erobert und das Feld wird mit der Farbe angemalt, aus welcher Gruppe die Antwort am schnellsten kam, z.b. rot. Die Gruppe, die das Feld erobert hat sagt dann den nächsten Buchstaben, z.B. „O“, und die Frage dazu lautet: „Wer ist der Vater deiner Mutter?“, wer zuerst „Opa“ sagt hat das Feld erobert.
Ziel ist es vier aneinander gehängte Felder zu erobern, also vier Felder gleicher Farbe, die miteinander verbunden sind, wagerecht oder senkrecht ist ganz egal, wichtig ist nur,dass sie verbunden sind.
Das Spiel eignet sich für Kinder jedes Alters, nur dürfen die Gruppen nicht zu groβ sein.
Das Spiel dient um Grammatik wie auch den Wortschatz zu wiederholen.
GAME BASED LEARNING
HİLAL BAKIR, Turkey
This is a type of game based e-learning programs to improve skills and Motivates students to learn.1. LEADING:
Immersing them in the material so they learn more effectively2. PREPARATION
OF GAME: cards are prepared
3. ENCOURAGİNG them to learn from their mistakes. Making learning fun motivates students and helps them pay attention and stay focused on the subject.
4. FEEDBACK: These games are to encourage students to learn outside of class.
And allow students to focus well enough to learn better. improves the learning performance of children.
ENGLISH LEARNING BY IMITATING MOVIE CHARACTERS AND EXPERIENCING REAL OBJECTS IN THE CLASSROOM.
BAHATTİN ÖZKARA, Turkey
Here you can find 4 different activities:
1. Imitating movie characters
2. Baloons with words (warm-up activity)
3. Posters in classroom
4. Guess what’s inside? (game with explanations)
5. Airplane game
6. Singing (karaoke)
7. Puppet show
The purpose of this study is to make English learning as a second language for the students more enjoyable and permanent .It is a well-known fact that young learners are likely to learn when they do it with toys, although it is a little bit hard for teachers to experience it in the classroom because the classroom management will get more difficult. Besides, we can say that when the kids act a play out, they feel more confident as they get aware of their own communicative competence. However, they are not afraid of making mistakes, they feel more comfortable since they pretend to be the person that they impersonating as if it were their own mother tongue. For instance, we make use of world wide famous and popular character, Captain Jack Sparrow. It may be somewhat expensive, tiring and time-consuming and there may be an official curriculum which teachers have to follow, but the result is worth trying for oral communication. Now, How do we do it in the classroom?
First, we prepare a small stage in front of the interactive white board.
Second, teacher chooses necessary characters out of the voluntary kids. They put the costumes on, then, they are supposed to watch and listen to the scene which they will play, carefully. After that, they imitate the characters. As for the other spectator students they, too, enjoy it a lot. When they are ready to act it out, they can join their classmates.
The students get very excited .They sometimes do wrong pronuciations but in time the mistakes that they are going to make will reduce just like we do in our mother tongue.As to the bad sides of this practice, we can talk about some disadvantages of it. The grammatical rules which are supposed to be taught can sometimes be ignored, however, in spoken language, some of the necessary grammar already exist .
What about taking a look at the young lady in the Picture .She uses the creative side of hers by trying to make the puppet and the skull speak out to each other extemporarily. Thus, it contributes to her personal growth and self-development.
In this Picture, the students carry out a warm-up activity.Before we start the lesson, we brush up on the previous subject to make a connection with the next subject. We do it through a warm-up activity. First, we blow up colorful balloons and write related English words on it. Then, a pair of kids from all desks throw it to each other and pronounce the word written upon the ballons. Thus, we try an enjoyable repetition with peer cooperation.
When we make use of visual materials such as posters in the Picture, it draws the direct attention of the students in stead of just writing and translation
they see what really is going on around, then they pay attention to the subjects without any interruption.
Now, we come up with an idea with my students, we name it “guess what‘s inside ?” game. Firstly, we make attractive colorful boxes and put an
object into it, before nobody can see,
then, the students try to guess what it is in. The teacher gives some clues. For instance, the teacher says: it is an animal and it can run fast, the students reply: it is a horse. Teacher then says: but it not big, it is a small lovely animal, then answer comes from the student: “ A rabbit.”
Through this game, we can arouse a lasting curiosity in the students’ inner world because they react to unknown things in a particular interest. Thus, we can increase the kids’ vocabulary with prediction and excitement.
Now the classroom should become more student-centered with the teacher allowing students to make model shapes made out of cardboards by themselves. For example, the students in the picture create an advertising plane and write English words under it. When one kid slides the plane through a rope from one side of the classroom to another, the students between two sides can see the words above their heads and remember them much more better than direct memorization.
It is a known fact that most people like singing songs in even their mother tongue.The boy in the Picture tries to sing and dance like king of pop, Michael Jackson. We make use of his songs and dancing, since his movements are very attractive and outstanding. Of course, you can use another artist you like. Furthermore, through the lyrics of the songs the students see how it is written and spoken at the same time.
However, the students get used to English letters in time in that Turkish students find it very difficult how to pronounce one English word since they take English letters for Turkish ones. So, the result is very ridiculous as they use Turkish sounds.We face this problem because English and Turkish both have Latin alphabet in spite of some little changes. But, with the help of lyrics of songs, we can minimize negative effects of this disadvantage.
In addition to other materials which are used in this study, we can benefit from the cultural backgrounds of the students. For instance , in the Picture you see
Hacıvat and Karagöz, a well known traditional puppet show. It is widely played and popular all around Turkey over centuries. Let me introduce you to the characters. Hacıvat and Karagöz are two close friends who always argue with each other comedically. We need two kids to perform the show in order to review the dialogues which are narrated in the book.Two
voluntary students get behind the hand-made puppet stage then, they make the puppets speak out in a funny way while the other students burst into laughter.
Finally , we cooperate with cartoons and the world of adventures. Almost all kids are crazy about cartoons. They learn much more better with what they really like. We can teach the students the subjects via their favorite hero because most of the students sometimes become too bored during the lesson. We can change the negative ambience in the classroom by having kids watch a cartoon film. Then, we can write English words on the cartoon posters upon which we made transparent cover. Whenever the students want to change the sentence, they can erase and write an another one again.
TEACHING FOR TEACHERS
Movie costumes, posters, puppets, balloons, colourful boxes, various toys, songs, one model plane made from cardboard.
Class/ grade :
5th and 6th (age of 10-12 )
English learning by imitating movie characters and experiencing real objects in the classroom.
Like said at the beginning of the study , the main purpose is to make English learning more enjoyable and permanent.With this study , we have tried to change some bad attidutes to English for the better for young learners of English.Even for adult learners, it is sometimes very hard to speak English because they give importance only written materials due to the exams in Turkey. Even if there are listening and speaking activities in the books, Turkish teachers cannot put it into practice because of the intensive curriculum and time limitation.That is why even some Academicians who got high score in the exams and who are extremely good at reading and writing cannot speak English fluently. The main reason for which we cannot speak English even for simple usage is that we don’t follow the precise order of four skills (listening, speaking, reading and writing). When we listen to target language enough then, we can speak properly because we cannot speak without proper listening. Like Noam Chomsky said: “listening and speaking are the parents of language learning.” We can get good results if we care about more and more listening and speaking phases before reading and writing activities. So, we should keep the balance.
Done by :
Yasemin UYSAL, Turkey
Material: Magical Sticks
Class/Grade: 2.-3.-4.-5.-6.-7.-8. Sınıf
Subject:Enjoying English while learning
Output: By using these sticks, we can create different and enjoyable games.We can learn better and easily. They provide us to use language,too.
Material usage: These material consists of many sticks.The teacher and the students can add or substract the number of sticks if they need.The teacher can arrange the sticks according to her students’ needs.They are useful for beginners because of their colours and consistency of only the new info.We can write all subjects in English or the other languages.(colours,numbers,pronouns or sentence….also we can write a story by using them)Our students can remember lots of words and expressions with them.
MULTIPLE INTELLIGENCES BASED TEACHING
Ewa Kozysa-Pasierbek, Poland
I’m a big fan of the theory of Multiple Intelligences. That is why I have chosen two tasks from the book “Multiple Intelligences in EFL. Exercises for secondary and adult students” by Herbert Puchta and Mario Rinvolucri (Helbling Languages, 2005).
I teach English in primary school and in the school kindergarten. My students are aged between 4 and 12. I do the task with my students in 6th grade (12 year-olds). The activity is easy to implement and, in my opinion, it can be effortlessly adjusted to the students’ language skills level. I like fun activities and this one is definitely enjoyable for a teacher and their students.
MUSICAL, SPATIAL OR KINAESTHETIC?
Language focus:Vocabulary revision, irregular verbs
Proposed Multiple Intelligences focus: Musical, spatial and kinesthetic
Level:Lower intermediate to advanced
Go through the vocabulary of the previous three to five units and pick out words that, in your mind, could belong in the area of the musical, the kinesthetic or the spatial intelligences. Pick out 20 to 30 words. Alternatively you could use the words below.
DURATION: 20-30 minutes
Teach each student to make four columns on a new sheet of paper.Tell them to give the columns these headings:
MUSIC SPACE MOVEMENT NONE OF THESE
Explain that you are going to dictate some word to them. They should quickly decide whether this word has to do with music or any of the other 3 categories, and write in under the correct heading. A word may go in two categories.
Dictate the words you have selected, or the words given here:
SING, RUN, CHURCH, OCEAN, CANARY, POTATO, MEMORY, TO DANCE, OVER THERE, STRAIGHT ON, PIANO, HORSE, BUS DRIVER, JANUARY, COMFORTABLE, SHRILL, THINKING, DRIVING, JUDO, DEEP, FAR AWAY, REPETITION, TO THROW, TO SHOUT, FOG
Group the learners in threes and ask them to compare their placings of the words. Ask them to concentrate on the ones that they felt sure of.
Ask each student to draw a line across their page like this:
Things I do on my own Things I do with others
Tell them you are going to dictate the infinitive of several irregular verbs, and they should select how far along the line they thing the verb belongs. Then they should write all three forms of the verb, in a short list, beneath the part of the line that seems right.
Here are some verbs:
WAKE UP BE READ HURT BUY
DREAM MEET SING SAY SWIM
PAY HAVE SPELL TELL
Group the students in threes to compare their placings. Help them check the spelling and pronunciation of the parts of the verbs.
I’ve used the variation of the task with some other statements with opposing meaning:
Things I did/ didn’t do last Saturday for past simple only.
For Present Perfect only: Things I have never done so far / Things I have done so far.
Then I had to develop the infinitives into longer expressions such as for example: brush my teeth, sail around the world, take a flight to California, read in bed, etc.
Preparing ready-to-use sheets of paper for students with the four columns needed or the statements will always save some time during the lesson.
Ewa Kozysa-Pasierbek , Poland
Language focus: Internalisation of part of a coursebook reading passage
Proposed Multiple Intelligences focus: Kineasthetic and linguistic
Level: Beginner to advanced
Time: 5-10 minutes
Preparation: Get a chocolate bar. This exercise is ideal if you are suddenly asked to take another teacher’s class.
1. Choose a coursebook passage two units ahead. Tell the students that the person
who manages to copy the most words in the passage correctly in 120 seconds will win the chocolate bar.
2. With their pens at the ready give them: READY, STEADY, GO !
3. At the end of 120 seconds, ask the students to mark each other’s work, and make them to count the number of correct words. Award the chocolate bar to the person with the highest score.
After the brief activity, students will be well on the way to becoming acquainted with
some of the language content fo the unit two ahead.
I apply this activity as a warm-up or as an extra task when some time is left to the end of the lesson.
We all know that our students love to compete with each other. Such an element of rivalry always change the dynamic of a lesson making it more attractive and waking up those children who easily get bored.
I always keep some sweets at school at hand just in case :) But I think that any reward (a sticker, a bookmark, just anything) can be used here, of course.
NLP - NEURO-LINGUISTIC PROGRAMMING
Ines Sedlar, Croatia
Neuro Linguistic Programming, or NLP, is a self-development technique developed in the 1970s by Richard Bandler and John Grinder. Its purpose is to help individuals understand and take control of their thought processes and feelings and use them to bring about positive change in their lives. It’s frequently used in business to help people build better relationships, develop leadership skills and overcome thinking which hampers their professional development, but in recent years it has gained momentum in the sphere of education due to its effectiveness in helping students gain a better understanding of the way they learn. Gardner put forward his theory of multiple intelligences which puts learning styles into three main categories: visual learning, in which the student responds best to visual stimuli such as videos, demonstration, reading and charts; auditory learning where the student prefers to have things explained to them and kinesthetic learning where students learn best when they perform an activity themselves, such as doing experiments and taking part in practical lessons. Teachers are now increasingly applying NLP techniques in the classroom for the benefit of each type of learner, and it’s even being adopted as part of the curriculum in some universities.
This is one of many ways of using principles of NLP in education.
P.S. SCROLL ALL THE WAY TO THE END
LESSON PLAN: THE UNICORN IN THE GARDEN (NLP)
MATERIALS: Stories, paper and penciles
DURATION: 30 minutes or more
1. Teacher draws a picture of the story’s subject on the board – in this case it is an unicorn
2. Teacher adds key words around (like mind mapping)
3. Students copy the drawing and the words.
4. Teacher puts copies of a story on the floor of the classroom. Students stand up and pick up one copy. If there is too many students, then they can work in groups. So, during 3 minutes time – either each student reads the story for himself or one student reads the story to the group (of no more than 4-5 students).
5.After reading text, they put the stories back on the floor and go to their seats. They put associations around the key words. They have another 3 minutes.
6. They check with partner – and add even more words to his drawing.
(7. If they worked in groups, then they check the words with the whole group.)
8. Teacher reads the story and students add more words.
Optional: for homework, or during lesson, they can try to write entire story using their key words and associations. This can be done especially if the story is short.
STORY “THE UNICORN IN THE GARDEN”
THE UNICORN IN THE GARDEN
Once upon a sunny morning, a man sitting in his breakfast nook looked up from his scrambled eggs to see a white unicorn with a gold horn quietly cropping the rose sin the garden. The man went up to the bedroom where his wife was still asleep and woke her.
“There is a unicorn in the garden,” he said, “eating roses.”
She opened one unfriendly eye and looked at him. “The unicorn is a mythical beast,” she said and turned her back on him. The man walked slowly downstairs and out into the garden. The unicorn was still there; he was now browsing among the tulips.
“Here, unicorn,” said the man, and ht pulled up a lily and gave it to him. The unicorn ate it gravely. With a high heart, because there was a unicorn in his garden, the man went upstairs and roused his wife again. “The unicorn,” he said, “ate a lily.” His wife sat up in bed and looked at him coldly. “You are a booby,” she said, “and I am going to have you put in the booby-hatch,”
The man who had never liked the words “booby” and “booby-hatch”, and liked them even less on a shining morning when there was a unicorn in the garden, thought for a moment. “We’ll see about that,” he said. He walked over to the door. “He has a golden horn in the middle of his forehead,” he told her. Then he went back to the garden to watch the unicorn; but the unicorn had gone away. The man sat down among the roses and went to sleep.
As soon as the husband had gone out of the house, the wife got up and dressed as fast as she could. She was very excited and there was a gloat in her eye.
She telephoned the police and she telephoned a psychiatrist; she told them to hurry to her house and bring a strait-jacket. When the police and the psychiatrist arrived, they sat down in chairs and looked at her, with great interest.
“My husband,” she said, “saw a unicorn this morning.”
The police looked at the psychiatrist and the psychiatrist looked at the police.
“He told me it had a golden horn in the middle of its forehead,” she said.
At a solemn signal from the psychiatrist, the police leaped from their chairs and seized the wife. They had a hard time subduing her, for she put up a terrific struggle, but they finally subdued her. Just as they got her into the strait jacket, the husband came back into the house.
“Did you tell your wife you saw a unicorn?” asked the police.
“Of course not,” said the husband. “The unicorn is a mythical beast.”
“That’s all I wanted to know,” said the psychiatrist.
“Take her away. I am sorry sir, but your wife is a crazy as a jay bird.”
So they took her away, cursing and screaming, and shut her up ina n institution. The husband lived happily ever after.
EXAMPLE FOR THE STORY “THE UNICORN IN THE GARDEN”
Ines Sedlar, Croatia
Divide children into teams or each pupil works for himself/herself.
Each team/student has certain amount of money. You give them sentences – some true, and some false. Children have to buy sentences, but they have to bid for sentences, and the goal is that they choose and buy true sentences. In the end the team (or the student) that has the biggest number of true sentences wins and gets reward.
Rewards don’t have to be grades – you can be creative: 2 minutes break any time student chooses (except during test), eating or drinking during the lesson, or even teacher’s help with one question during test (teacher can tell the student during the test if the answer he/she wrote is true or false)...
Ines Sedlar, Croatia
Task-based learning (TBL) offers an alternative for teachers. The main principle is to learn by doing. The lesson is created around task, not around the form.
It has 6 stages:
1. Lead in – tuning in to the theme. Teacher gives an
2. Task preparation – Modeling, teacher gives an example.
3. Task preformance – Organize, do the task.
4. Report back – Present the task.
5. Feedback – Teacher gives the feedback.
6. Writing stage – Homework or writing about the task preformed.
LESSON PLAN: TASK - TO TELL A STORY
DURATION: 30 minutes
1. LEAD IN:
„I will tell you a story about my anegdote during the travel. This is what happened to me:“ teacher tells/reads a personal story about trubles that happened to him/her during travel – depending on age of students, the story will be more or less complicated (detailed).
2. TASK PREPARATION: „Now, you will retell me the story I told you.“ or: „Now retell my story to eachother in pairs“ or, for younger students: „Work in pairs and write down the story I just told you.“
3. TASK PREFORMANCE: „Now, think of your own story – something interesting that happened to you during travel. Write down notes (for younger students – write down the whole story, and ask the unfamiliar words).“
4. REPORT BACK:
„In groups of 4 (more or less, depending of the size of the classroom), retell the story to eachother. Everyone has to tell (read) the story.
Choose the most interesting story that will be presented to the whole class.“
While students tell eachother stories, teacher walks through classroom and writes down to himself/herself incorrect phrases, tipical words... After the students finish telling their story, teacher corrects mistakes he/she heard students say (without saying who said it), corrects bad language and stresses aimed vocabulary and good language.
6. WRITING STAGE: During class (or for your homework) write story about something nice that happened to you during travel.
TASK-BASED LEARNING: TALKING ABOUT DAILY LIFE
Oliwia Wojtucowicz, Turkey
Teacher in a primary school and kindergarten. For me speaking and communication are the core skills in a foreign language teaching. To teach them successfully you need to keep the students motivated and interested. That’s why this activity is focused on the product created by the students. It can be done without any materials. Oliwia Wojtucowicz – TURKEY (İzmir Mavişehir 2 Bilim İlkokulu)
TALKING ABOUT DAILY LIFE(PRESENT SIMPLE) AND ‘WOULD’ STRUCTURE
MATERIALS: A CLOCK (PAPER OR PLASTIC), PAPER FOR EACH STUDENT, PHOTOS OR FLASHCARDS WITH EVERYDAY ACTIONS
DURATION: 40 MINUTES
1- LEAD IN : The teacher is telling her/his daily routine. Students may ask questions. The teacher is showing the time on the clock. (level depends on the age of students)
2- The teacher is changing his/her story. They explain what ‘parallel universe’ means/opposire world. They say their story what imagining its an ‘opposite world’
3- Students make notes/write stories of their daily routines on the paper.
4- In groups they explain their routines to their friends. Volunteer students tell their routines using a clock in fornt of the classroom.
5- Follow up: students ask questions/details
6- The teacher asks the students to close their eyes and imagine they transformed into the ‘opposite world’. They open their eyes and retell their routines as they would be in the parallel universe. (ex: Children would go to work, parents would stay at school, etc..)
TASK-BASED LEARNING: SPOT THE DIFFERENCES
TUĞBA OKŞAR (TURKEY)
The Based learning offers an altenative for language teachers. In a task based lesson the teacher doesn’t predetermine what language will be studied, the lesson is based around the completion of a central task and the pupils complete it. The lesson follows some stages: Pre-task Task/Planning/Report/Language Focus.
-In Pre-task (Teacher introduces topic and task)
- In Task (Students carry out the task)
- In Planning (Students plan how to report on task outcome)
- In Report (Students report back to class)
- Language Focus (Analysis-Practice)
MY IMPLEMENTATION IN LESSON
My teaching context is a private school in İzmir/TURKEY. The majority of primary school students are elementary and pre-intermediate range. Most of classes have between 20-24 students. While coursebooks are prescribed for many classes, teachers generally have a great deal of autonomy in choosing teaching materials and methodology. However, English lessons are expected to be communicatation based and to develop learners abilities to use English in real world situations.
NOTES: I think while such a context appears ideally suited to task based learning, several factors, related to the individual learners, the specific learning environment, as well as the broader socio-cultural context, need to be considered in assessing the possible bnefits of adopting TBLT.
LESSON PLAN: SPOT THE DIFFERENCES
MATERIALS:Some pictures of clothes, colors and worksheet.
DURATION:30 Minutes to complete both pairs of pictures.
Revise vocabulary for clothing if necessary.
Put the students into pairs. Give each student A one picture from the pair, and student B the matching one. Tell them they mustn’t let their partner see their picture. They should hide it behind a book.
Explain that there are six differences between the pictures. They have to describe their pictures very carefully to each other and identify the differences. Emphasize that they mustn’t speak too loudly or the other pairs will hear their answers. They are allowed to ask each other questions.
At the end, ask the students to tell you what differences they have found. The others can check whether they are correct. Each pair can then have a go with the other pair of pictures. Ask them to assess whether they were more successful the second time.
Ines Sedlar, Croatia
Activity that will help children with new vocabulary. It can be used for any subject to repeat terms learned during lesson.
Teacher divides blackboard in 3 different columns. The first is: CERTAINLY YES, the second one is: CERTAINLY NO, and the last one is: MAYBE YES, MAYBE NO.
Children are divided in groups, and they have to guess the term that teacher sets, without showing children what it is.
So, if the term is APPLE, teacher only says it’s fruit, and the groups ask: Is it red? Is it blue? Does it grow in the bushes? Does it grow on the trees? Is it sour?
„Red“ and „grows on trees“ go in the column CERTAINLY YES, „blue“ and „grows in the bushes“ go to CERTAINLY NO, and „sour“ goes to MAYBE YES, MAYBE NO.
It can be used in any subjects because terms can be different. They can be: triangle, mass and weight, molecule, noun and verb, and so many other – related to the lesson and subject teacher teaches!
Experience of the teacher
MY IMPLEMENTATION IN LESSON – HİLAL BAKIR, TURKEY:
Hello, I am an English language teacher for Turkish students. I have applied term quiz in my 3rd grade class today. Ī divided the board in three Columns. The students are sitting in the classroom in three groups.I wrote in columns CERTAINLY YES,CERTAINLY NO,MAY BE OR MAY NOT BE. Ī explained the main rules. İn fact i added something New to this technique like visiual images and final points for groups that guess the word correctly. For example at the end there was a winner group. My students like to get a reward during lessons. They had a great time and revised the terms/words we have learned on Last class.
İn fact i didn’t think that they would like this way of learning so much. Thank you very much Ines Sedlar you have helped me because I was searching for New methods.
NOTE: I showed my students a certain book page which consists of some pictures and I choose a picture and worked on it.
WE ARE ON THE AREA
Serhat Çeven, Turkey
My branch, science, needs some physical effort for improve to learning and achieve the aims. Sometimes we start it on class and finish the lesson on the yard. You may use teaching materials which including videos, games etc. as any other in class activity butthat is not enough for all students.
I belive that; we must design the lesson like a path.That path includes questions, and that quesitons give us some results and than that results give us any other question for solve its. Path must be quite wild beacuse untouched things more interesting than knowns. This path is our forefathers way, I think..
MY IMPLEMENTATION IN LESSON
I set a trip to the anywhere of including our lesson’s units. Before the trip we decide to which career is more helpful for explore and explain its to the people. After decide to career, we decide to „which features we must have to this job?“ (occupational criteria). After than, we create groups ( five or four members) and giving them lesson’s aims for explain. And last point before the trip, they are working on their trip plan by asking these quesiton;
- What materials we need at there and who have it?
- Which criteria of our job the most helpfull to explore matters on there?
- These information that we learnt how can help us?
- How long time do we have and how can we reach those aims?
And finally, we go the area where we planned. They are working on their plan and using materials what they need. They check aims and using information that they have. They always can ask any question to our guide, or get information on the are information materials. After the the trip they have 3 days to ready their TRIP REPORT and give us a briefing as member of their career which we decided. They explore new careers, and reach lesson’s aims in the same time.
NOTES: You must attention to materials that they have. Before the trip you should go there for detect the appropriate aims which you give them.
LESSON PLAN: BOTANIST ON THE AREA!
MATERIALS: Camera, a pochette, notebook, pencil, glove, computer,
DURATION: 8 hours (3 hours in the area 5 hours on the class)
INTRODUCTION: We learnt plant’s life cycle. You know, science always needs evidences to belive claims. We set a trip to the Atatürk Arboretum for test our information on the area. You must reach that aims;
-In this season how many plant still have leaves?
-Do every plants needs to create seeds for their life cycle?
-Is plant’s mean only tree? There is another form of plant?
-How you explain that why trees’s have diffrent leaves?
-Why trees need become a forest? What are it’s benefits for them?
-How they take enough sun light where they stay?
-What’s bug’s purpose on the forest? Do they helpful or harmful?
You must decide that which career can help us the explore plant’s world and reach the aims.
MAIN ACTIVITY: They decide to their career for this activity. They’r researching careers, listing its and arguing which of them can be most helpful for them. They decide to be a botanist after then they researching for occupational criteria for this job.
After than they set their groups and decided materials what they need. We go to the arboretum and give them enough time for the test aims.
We want that; when they test aims they must be confused about any other thing on plants life and they must note that question for research or ask. We tell them to note every quesiton which they wonder.
They are taking some plant’s sample to anlayze after the trip, they can show that samples on the briefing for preove their claims. After the trip we return the school. They have 3 days for TRIP REPORT and briefing as a botanist.
FINAL ACTIVITY: They check their preinformations, aims and their observation or samples. At this point; they must prepare a presentation for explain their reports. Every groups give their reports and show their presentation to the class. At the end, all groups write questions that they still wonder and need someone’s explain to them. All questions turning between the groups and who have any answer to any quesiton, can write under it and we finish the cycle of questions when all groups saw all questions. There are still questions no answered. We put it on the board, they going to stay there until we find a explain for them.
Yasemin Uysal, Turkey
TIME: 20 minutes
MATERIALS: a cheap oval bath sponge per child, glue and scraps of paper, card or felt.
DESCRIPTION: The children make a puppet using a bath sponge as a base.
PREPARATION: Make a puppet yourself to show the children.
1. Have all the materials you need, nearby. Show the sponge and tell them to watch you as you make the puppet. Talk through the process as you show them how to make it.
2. Cut holes in the back of the sponge for your fingers and thumb.
3. Cut out eyes, ears, hair, teeth and so on. Stick them on the sponge.
4. Put your fingers in the holes and use them to make the sponge talk.
5. Get the children to collect the material they need before they start.
6. Tell them to make their puppets in pairs, helping each other and giving advice.
7. Go around the class encouraging and commenting as they make their puppets.
FACE ON A FINGER
Yasemin Uysal, Turkey
The children draw faces on their fingers. They can make hats or “skirts” for them too.
Washable felt-tips pens, strips of white and/or coloured paper if you want to make skirts, scissors and fingers
Practise making a puppet on your finger.
TIME: 15 minutes
1. Tell the children they are going to make a puppet and that you are going to show them how. If you are using the puppets for a play, tell learners which characters they need.
2. Use the washable pens to draw a face halfway up your index finger.
3. Take a strip of paper and stick it into a circle that just fits the top of your finger. Cut and colour it to make hair or a hat. Put the paper on your finger.
4. Ask the children what they are going to need. Make sure everyone has the materials before they start.
5. Give children 5-10 minutes to make their puppets.
The children draw puppets on their partner’s finger.
Yasemin Uysal, Turkey
TIME: 5-10 minutes
DESCRIPTION: The children draw faces on their fists (see picture). They can raise and lower their thumb to make the puppet speak.
MATERIALS: Washable felt-tip pens and hands.
PREPARATION: Practise drawing the puppet on your fist and making it talk.
1. If you are going to use the puppets for a play, tell the children who the characters are.
2. Tell them to close their fists and draw on the eyes, lips and hair.
3. Practise raising and lowering your thumb to show them how to make the puppet speak.
4. Put the children into pairs and get them to draw the puppets onto each other’s fists.
DRAMA WITH CHILDREN
Yasemin Uysal, Turkey
TIME: 40 MINUTES
The children make a puppet using a sock as a base. When you put your fingers in the toe of the sock and the palm of your hand or your thumb in the heel, you make a mouth that opens and closes. Although they take longer to make, they are stronger and longer lasting. They are also suitable to use as your own puppet who “only speak English”.
An old sock per child, coloutes wool, table tennis balls or balls of cotton wool for eyes (optional), scraps of coloured card or felt, coloured pens or crayons.
1. Tell the children at least a week before the lesson that they need to bring an old sock to school. The children’s own sock will probably be too small; an older child’s or an adult sock is better.
2. Make several puppets, each at a different stage of completion. These are useful when demonstrating how to make the puppet.
1. Show the children your finished puppet and explain that they are going to make one themselves.
2. Show the children all the materials they will need, naming them and writing a list on the board. Ask them to find the material they are going to use.
3. Show them the different stages one at a time. Describe what they have to do, demonstrating at the same time. Wait until all the children have finished one stage before you demonstrate the next. Make the puppet like this:
YASEMIN UYSAL, TURKEY:
DANIJELA GAŠPAR, CROATIA:
ALENKA MILJEVIĆ, CROATIA: